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SQL Database Tutorial

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What is SQL?

SQL (pronounced "ess-que-el") stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is used to communicate with a database. According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is the standard language for relational database management systems. SQL statements are used to perform tasks such as update data on a database, or retrieve data from a database. Some common relational database management systems that use SQL are: Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server, Access, Ingres, etc. Although most database systems use SQL, most of them also have their own additional proprietary extensions that are usually only used on their system. However, the standard SQL commands such as "Select", "Insert", "Update", "Delete", "Create", and "Drop" can be used to accomplish almost everything that one needs to do with a database. This tutorial will provide you with the instruction on the basics of each of these commands as well as allow you to put them to practice using the SQL Interpreter.

Why SQL?

  •  Allow users to access data in relational database management systems.
  •  Allow users to describe the data.
  •  Allow users to define the data in database and manipulate that data.
  •  Allow to embed within other languages using SQL modules, libraries & pre-compilers.
  •  Allow users to create and drop databases and tables.
  • Allow users to create view, stored procedure, functions in a database.
  •  Allow users to set permissions on tables, procedures, and views

History:

·         1970 -- Dr. E.F. "Ted" of IBM is known as the father of relational databases. He described a relational model for databases.

·         1974 -- Structured Query Language appeared.

·         1978 -- IBM worked to develop Codd's ideas and released a product named System/R.

·         1986 -- IBM developed the first prototype of relational database and standardized by ANSI. The first relational database was released by Relational Software and its later becoming Oracle

 

What can you do with SQL?

  • SQL can retrieve and update data from relational database management system by using data manipulation language.

  • SQL can create and modify database schema and database objects such as tables, views, indexes. via data definition language.

  • SQL can grant or revoke authorization to user through data control language.

SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML)

SQL data manipulation language (DML) is a main part of SQL statements. SQL DML allows you to retrieve data from the database tables in relational database management system (RDBMS). In addition, SQL DML allows you change or delete data from the database tables by using UPDATE and DELETE statements. Here are all the SQL statements related to the SQL data manipulation language:

 

SQL Data Definition Language (DDL)

SQL Data definition language is a subset of SQL statements. SQL Database definition language allows to create, alter or remove different kind database objects such as tables, views, indexes. SQL DDL allows you to Create, Alter, Drop, data from the database tables in relational database management system (RDBMS). 

SQL Data Control Language (DCL)

DCL is abbreviation of Data Control Language. It is used to create roles, permissions, and referential integrity as well it is used to control access to database by securing it.

SQL Transactional Control Language (TCL)

TCL is abbreviation of Transactional Control Language. It is used to manage different transactions occurring within a database.

 

 

 




 
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